SSH: Backup all databases

You can dump all the databases into a single .sql file like so:

mysqldump --all-databases > database_backup.sql

Or you can dump them individually to a directory with the date of backup to /home/ by using a for loop, such as this:

now=$(date +"%m_%d_%Y");mkdir /home/mysql.back.$now && for i in $(mysql -BNe 'show databases'| grep -v _schema);do echo $i; sudo mysqldump $i > /home/mysql.back.$now/$i.sql ; done 

Split and merge large files

Use the split command to do this:

split --bytes=1024m bigfile.iso small_file_

That command will split bigfile.iso into files that are 1024 MB in size (1GB) and name the various parts small_file_aa, small_file_ab, etc. You can specify b for bytes, k for Kilobytes and m for Megabytes to specify sizes.

To join the files back together on Linux:

cat small_file_* > joined_file.iso

Similarly to join the split files on a Windows machine, use the copy command:

copy /b small_file_* joined_file.iso


SSH: How to Fix Permissions on Files and Directories?

Here are the SSH commands to fix your permissions on a mass level:

    find ~/public_html -type d -exec chmod 755 {} \;

    find ~/public_html -type f -exec chmod 644 {} \;

Basically, the format is to find, or look, in the path of ~(which means home) and then in public_html. (If you want to look in a different directory, you can change this. e.g. ~/public_html/myblog) And then it looks for the document type, be it directory (d) or file (f), and executes the chmod(change mode) command to change the permissions on all results.

How to tar/untar, compress/uncompress files/folders using php script

How to tar/untar, compress/uncompress files/folders using php script

How to tar/untar, compress/uncompress files/folders using php script

Uploading and downloading files is a chore every webmaster has to cope with on daily basis, but if you do this by compressing the files, uploading the tar or zipped and uncompressing them on server, life becomes a little easier.

Similarly taking backup on a server becomes easier if you just compress the files/folder on server and download the tar.gz file. Usually these commands are run over SSH, but if you do not have SSH access, you can place the commands in php script too.

SSH: How to Fix Permissions on Files and Directories?

SSH: How to Fix Permissions on Files and Directories?

SSH: How to Fix Permissions on Files and Directories?

Here are the SSH commands to fix your permissions on a mass level:

    find ~/public_html -type d -exec chmod 755 {} \;

    find ~/public_html -type f -exec chmod 644 {} \;

Basically, the format is to find, or look, in the path of ~(which means home) and then in public_html. (If you want to look in a different directory, you can change this. e.g. ~/public_html/myblog) And then it looks for the document type, be it directory (d) or file (f), and executes the chmod(change mode) command to change the permissions on all results.

How do I manually kill a process on my Linux server?

Log into your server as the root user and find the process PID that you wish to kill. You can do that by issuing the ps command with the aux options. See example below.

ps aux

This will display a process list and each visible process should have a line similar to the one below.

username 31262 0.0 0.0 12168 1752 ? S 00:25 0:00 somecommand


Server Loads Explained

Explaining what server loads really are and how to control them, how to watch loads and signs of server trouble.

Server Load Explination
The load average tries to measure the number of active processes at any time. As a measure of CPU utilization, the load average is simplistic, poorly defined, but far from useless. High load averages usually mean that the system is being used heavily and the response time is correspondingly slow. What’s high? … Ideally, you’d like a load average under, say, 3, … Ultimately, ‘high’ means high enough so that you don’t need uptime to tell you that the system is overloaded.

When seeing the results of the load averages, they are for the past 1, 5, and 15 minutes.

How to check the servers load?
There are a few different ways to keep an eye on your servers load, the first thing you need to do is login to your server by SSH.

Method 1 – using the uptime command:
The uptime shell command produces the following output:

[pax:~]% uptime
9:40am  up 9 days, 10:36,  4 users,  load average: 0.02, 0.01, 0.00

It shows the time since the system was last booted, the number of active user processes and something called the load average.

Method 2 – using the procinfo command:
On Linux systems, the procinfo command produces the following output:

[pax:~]% procinfo
Linux 2.0.36 ([email protected]) (gcc #1 Wed Jul 25 21:40:16 EST 2001 [pax]

Memory:      Total        Used        Free      Shared     Buffers      Cached
Mem:         95564       90252        5312       31412       33104       26412
Swap:        68508           0       68508

Bootup: Sun Jul 21 15:21:15 2002    Load average: 0.15 0.03 0.01 2/58 8557

The load average appears in the lower left corner of this output.

Method 3 – using the w command:
The w command produces the following output:

[pax:~]% w
9:40am  up 9 days, 10:35,  4 users,  load average: 0.02, 0.01, 0.00
USER     TTY      FROM              [email protected] IDLE   JCPU   PCPU  WHAT
mir      ttyp0    :0.0             Fri10pm  3days  0.09s  0.09s  bash
neil     ttyp2  9:40am  0.00s  0.29s  0.15s  w

Notice that the first line of the output is identical to the output of the uptime command.

Method 4 – using the top command – prefered:
The top command is a more recent addition to the UNIX command set that ranks processes according to the amount of CPU time they consume. It produces the following output:

4:09am  up 12:48,  1 user,  load average: 0.02, 0.27, 0.17
58 processes: 57 sleeping, 1 running, 0 zombie, 0 stopped
CPU states:  0.5% user,  0.9% system,  0.0% nice, 98.5% idle
Mem:   95564K av,  78704K used,  16860K free,  32836K shrd,  40132K buff
Swap:  68508K av,      0K used,  68508K free                 14508K cached

5909 neil      13   0   720  720   552 R       0  1.5  0.7   0:01 top
1 root       0   0   396  396   328 S       0  0.0  0.4   0:02 init
2 root       0   0     0    0     0 SW      0  0.0  0.0   0:00 kflushd
3 root     -12 -12     0    0     0 SW<     0  0.0  0.0   0:00 kswapd

We like to use the top command because it also shows server uptime, memory information and the list of processes that you can sort by CPU usage, etc.

Other system monitoring tools – SIM (System Integrity Monitor)
The folks at R-fx networks have developed this utility that has a variety of features such as;
– Ability to auto restart system with definable critical load level
– System load monitor with customizable warnings & actions
– Priority change configurable for services, at warning or critical load level

What is a good load, bad load and in between?
I know you’re asking, “so what is a good system load or what is a bad load?” Anything around 1.0 and below is fine, try to stick to under 1.0 for regular load averages. If you notice your server slowing down, check the load first. We hosted a site that was mentioned on the media (TV, News, Radio) recently and the server skyrocketed because of the huge wave of traffic. The load went from 0.25 to 37.00 just because the server was getting hammered.

When your regular average starts to creep up around 2.0 then your server is very busy and you should consider getting another machine or upgrading your hardware. When I say regular average, I mean when the system is idle during the day and isn’t processing all your logs or backing up data.

Having an overloaded server can lead to many problems and should always be avoided. I hope this guide was helpful by giving you some more insight to server loads, what to use to monitor them and what is a good and bad load average.



Common SSH Commands – Linux Shell Commands

We’ve put together some of the more frequently used linux shell commands, and organized them by name so you can easily find a command, their description and how to use it. This guide will continue to be updated and should not be considered a complete list of linux shell commands, but commands, we found, often used. If you would like to add to this guide, please email us and let us know. We know that these themselves are bash commands and not actually SSH commands but it is what most Linux newbies are looking for when searching for ‘SSH commands’.

Common Linux Shell Commands
ls : list files/directories in a directory, comparable to dir in windows/dos.
ls -al : shows all files (including ones that start with a period), directories, and details attributes for each file.

cd : change directory ·· cd /usr/local/apache : go to /usr/local/apache/ directory
cd ~ : go to your home directory
cd – : go to the last directory you were in
cd .. : go up a directory cat : print file contents to the screen

cat filename.txt : cat the contents of filename.txt to your screen

chmod: changes file access permissions
The set of 3 go in this order from left to right:

0 = — No permission
1 = –X Execute only
2 = -W- Write only
3 = -WX Write and execute
4 = R– Read only
5 = R-X Read and execute
6 = RW- Read and write
7 = RWX Read, write and execute

chmod numberpermissions filename

chmod 000 : No one can access
chmod 644: Usually for HTML pages
chmod 755: Usually for CGI scripts

chown: changes file ownership permissions
The set of 2 go in this order from left to right:

chown root myfile.txt : Changes the owner of the file to root
chown root.root myfile.txt : Changes the owner and group of the file to root

tail : like cat, but only reads the end of the file
tail /var/log/messages : see the last 20 (by default) lines of /var/log/messages
tail -f /var/log/messages : watch the file continuously, while it’s being updated
tail -200 /var/log/messages : print the last 200 lines of the file to the screen

more : like cat, but opens the file one screen at a time rather than all at once
more /etc/userdomains : browse through the userdomains file. hit Space to go to the next page, q to quit

pico : friendly, easy to use file editor
pico /home/burst/public_html/index.html : edit the index page for the user’s website.

File Editing with VI commands
vi : another editor, tons of features, harder to use at first than pico
vi /home/burst/public_html/index.html : edit the index page for the user’s website.
Whie in the vi program you can use the following useful commands, you will need to hit SHIFT + : to go into command mode

:q! : This force quits the file without saving and exits vi
:w : This writes the file to disk, saves it
:wq : This saves the file to disk and exists vi
:LINENUMBER : EG :25 : Takes you to line 25 within the file
:$ : Takes you to the last line of the file
:0 : Takes you to the first line of the file

grep : looks for patterns in files
grep root /etc/passwd : shows all matches of root in /etc/passwd
grep -v root /etc/passwd : shows all lines that do not match root

ln : create’s “links” between files and directories
ln -s /usr/local/apache/conf/httpd.conf /etc/httpd.conf : Now you can edit /etc/httpd.conf rather than the original. changes will affect the orginal, however you can delete the link and it will not delete the original.

last : shows who logged in and when
last -20 : shows only the last 20 logins
last -20 -a : shows last 20 logins, with the hostname in the last field

w : shows who is currently logged in and where they are logged in from.
who : This also shows who is on the server in an shell.

netstat : shows all current network connections.
netstat -an : shows all connections to the server, the source and destination ips and ports.
netstat -rn : shows routing table for all ips bound to the server.

top : shows live system processes in a nice table, memory information, uptime and other useful info. This is excellent for managing your system processes, resources and ensure everything is working fine and your server isn’t bogged down.
top then type Shift + M to sort by memory usage or Shift + P to sort by CPU usage

ps: ps is short for process status, which is similar to the top command. It’s used to show currently running processes and their PID.
A process ID is a unique number that identifies a process, with that you can kill or terminate a running program on your server (see kill command).
ps U username : shows processes for a certain user
ps aux : shows all system processes
ps aux –forest : shows all system processes like the above but organizes in a hierarchy that’s very useful!

touch : create an empty file
touch /home/burst/public_html/404.html : create an empty file called 404.html in the directory /home/burst/public_html/

file : attempts to guess what type of file a file is by looking at it’s content.
file * : prints out a list of all files/directories in a directory

du : shows disk usage.
du -sh : shows a summary, in human-readble form, of total disk space used in the current directory, including subdirectories.
du -sh * : same thing, but for each file and directory. helpful when finding large files taking up space.

wc : word count
wc -l filename.txt : tells how many lines are in filename.txt

cp : copy a file
cp filename filename.backup : copies filename to filename.backup
cp -a /home/burst/new_design/* /home/burst/public_html/ : copies all files, retaining permissions form one directory to another.
cp -av * ../newdir : Copies all files and directories recurrsively in the current directory INTO newdir

mv : Move a file command
mv oldfilename newfilename : Move a file or directory from oldfilename to newfilename

rm : delete a file
rm filename.txt : deletes filename.txt, will more than likely ask if you really want to delete it
rm -f filename.txt : deletes filename.txt, will not ask for confirmation before deleting.
rm -rf tmp/ : recursively deletes the directory tmp, and all files in it, including subdirectories. BE VERY CAREFULL WITH THIS COMMAND!!!

: Creating and Extracting .tar.gz and .tar files
tar -zxvf file.tar.gz : Extracts the file
tar -xvf file.tar : Extracts the file
tar -cf archive.tar contents/ : Takes everything from contents/ and puts it into archive.tar
gzip -d filename.gz : Decompress the file, extract it

ZIP Files: Extracting .zip files shell command

Firewall – iptables commands
iptables -I INPUT -s IPADDRESSHERE -j DROP : This command stops any connections from the IP address
iptables -L : List all rules in iptables
iptables -F : Flushes all iptables rules (clears the firewall)
iptables –save : Saves the currenty ruleset in memory to disk
service iptables restart : Restarts iptables

Apache Shell Commands
httpd -v : Outputs the build date and version of the Apache server.
httpd -l : Lists compiled in Apache modules
httpd status : Only works if mod_status is enabled and shows a page of active connections
service httpd restart : Restarted Apache web server

MySQL Shell Commands
mysqladmin processlist : Shows active mysql connections and queries
mysqladmin drop databasenamehere : Drops/deletes the selected database
mysqladmin create databasenamehere : Creates a mysql database

Restore MySQL Database Shell Command
mysql -u username -p password databasename < databasefile.sql : Restores a MySQL database from databasefile.sql

Backup MySQL Database Shell Command
mysqldump -u username -p password databasename > databasefile.sql : Backup MySQL database to databasefile.sql

kill: terminate a system process
kill -9 PID EG: kill -9 431
kill PID 
EG: kill 10550
Use top or ps ux to get system PIDs (Process IDs)


10550 pts/3 0:01 /bin/csh
10574 pts/4 0:02 /bin/csh
10590 pts/4 0:09 APP

Each line represents one process, with a process being loosely defined as a running instance of a program. The column headed PID (process ID) shows the assigned process numbers of the processes. The heading COMMAND shows the location of the executed process.

Putting commands together
Often you will find you need to use different commands on the same line. Here are some examples. Note that the | character is called a pipe, it takes date from one program and pipes it to another.
> means create a new file, overwriting any content already there.
>> means tp append data to a file, creating a newone if it doesn not already exist.
< send input from a file back into a command.

grep User /usr/local/apache/conf/httpd.conf |more
This will dump all lines that match User from the httpd.conf, then print the results to your screen one page at a time.

last -a > /root/lastlogins.tmp
This will print all the current login history to a file called lastlogins.tmp in /root/

tail -10000 /var/log/exim_mainlog |grep |more
This will grab the last 10,000 lines from /var/log/exim_mainlog, find all occurances of (the period represents ‘anything’,
— comment it out with a so it will be interpretted literally), then send it to your screen page by page.

netstat -an |grep :80 |wc -l
Show how many active connections there are to apache (httpd runs on port 80)

mysqladmin processlist |wc -l
Show how many current open connections there are to mysql


Page 1 of 212

Pin It on Pinterest